Answers to FAQ’s from
Principles of EMD, 3rd Edition
(you can use the "find" function under "Menu/Edit" to search this document for a key word)

Question / Pages

Takes too much time (Misconception 3) / 1.14

Reduction of responding units & lights-and-siren runs / 1.15 - 1.16

NAEMD EMVC Study statistics / 1.16

All you need is protocol & training / 1.17

The Spock Principle / 1.18

EMD is an ALS professional / 1.20 - 1.21

Medical vs. protocol practice models / 1.21

Never judge the caller / 2.3 - 2.4

EMD as scene commander / 2.5 - 2.7

Accept all calls even ones from wrong area / 2.7

Repeat address for verification / 2.8 - 2.9

Special caller situation: Children / 2.10 - 2.11

1st party Gone-on-Arrival situation / 2.14 - 2.17

Medical Miranda (S.E.N.D or SEND) / 3.4 - 3.7

Caller party percentages / 3.8 - 3.9

Four Commandments / 3.10 - 3.15

Priority Dispatch Flow Chart / 3.17

Key Question Objectives / 3.18

"Sick person" call — non-compliance example / 3.19 - 3.20

"Chest pain gone" call / 3.20 - 3.22

Dispatch response determination theory / 3.25 - 3.34

Understanding Determinant terminology / 3.26 - 3.34

DLS is different than BLS & ALS / 4.3 - 4.5

Who should give PAIs / 4.6 - 4.7

What’s wrong with telephone aid / 4.8

Caller’s "implied consent" / 4.11

Surgeon General’s statement on the Heimlich maneuver / 4.12

DLS in National Standard of practice (USA) / 4.13 - 4.14

Arrival interface / 4.19 - 4.20

Benefits of DLS / 4.24

Hysteria Threshold & Repetitive Persistence / 5.2 - 5.8

Bring patient to phone problem / 5.5 - 5.8

Refreak Events / 5.8 - 5.10

Nothing’s working phenomenon / 5.9

Paramedics aren’t coming notion / 5.11

The Gap Theory / 5.11

Customer Service is patient care / 5.11 - 5.12

Percentage of DELTA codes in Unknown Problem cases / 6.3

Age factor in chest pain / 6.6 - 6.7

"Hurts to breathe" is not difficulty breathing / 6.10

A little chest pain may be as bad as a lot / 6.10

Anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction) / 6.16 - 6.18

Spider bites / 6.18

Not "dead" until "warm dead" (hypothermia rule) / 6.21

Poison Control Center (home care-OMEGA) / 6.24

"Hanging" case (UK) / 6.29

No oral sugar treatment / 6.33

Seizures — initially no breathing / 6.33

Grand Mal Seizures last 35-45 seconds / 6.33

Seizure can be initial symptom of cardiac arrest / 6.36

Low risk of death from Febrile seizure / 6.34

Should Febrile seizures be treated over the phone / 6.34 - 6.35

Stroke — Official Academy Position Statement / 6.39 - 6.41

Mechanism of Injury / 7.2 - 7.3

Medical problems as cause of trauma / 7.14

Rule of Nines article / 7.21

Head-tilt method of Airway Control / 7.27

Nuchal Cord (cord around neck) / 8.4

Cardiac Arrest / 8.4 - 8.11

Obvious Death / 8.6

Agonal respirations / 8.7

MPDS increases bystander CPR percentage / 8.11

Choking / 8.11 - 8.14

Still choking percentages / 8.12

Cold water drowning / 8.14 - 8.15

Drowning rescue safety / 8.16

Hyperventilation syndrome / 8.18

Falls secondary to Electrocution / 8.21

Electrocution safety / 8.21 - 8.22

Essential information for reporting HazMat / 8.23

Unconscious patients and intoxication / 8.25

Unknown problems / 8.26 - 8.30

"Hendon" case (unknown problem) / 8.27 - 8.28

Deluca’s Law / 8.29

Relay type of location / 8.29

What is Stress? / 10.2 - 10.3

Stress in EMD / 10.3 - 10.6

Burnout and distress / 10.6 - 10.7

Four Hallmarks of Stress / 10.5

Managing stress / 10.7 - 10.10

Critical Incident Stress / 10.10 - 10.11

Seven most stressful calls / 10.10

First Law of Medical Diagnosis / 11.2

Duty and negligence / 11.2 - 11.3

The Emergency Rule / 11.4 - 11.5

Forseeability / 11.5, 11.8

Maximal Response Disease / 11.6 - 11.8

Abandonment / 11.8

Special Relationship (civil rights) / 11.8

Detrimental Reliance / 11.9

Tort of Outrage / 11.9

Dispatch Danger Zones / 11.9 - 11.31

Failure to verify / 11.10 - 11.11

No send situations / 11.11 - 11.12

"Archie case" (no send) / 11.11 - 11.12

Dispatch diagnosis / 11.12

"Lam" case (no send) / 11.13 - 11.16

Delayed response / 11.12 - 11.13

More than one call for help / 11.13

"Dale" case (more than one call for help) / 11.13, 11.17 — 11.18

No protocols to follow / 11.13 - 11.16

Failure to follow protocol / 11.16 - 11.23

Requiring caller’s permission before giving pre-arrivals / 11.23 - 11.24

Omission of pre-arrival instructions (failure to give) / 11.24

PANDA (Parents Against Negligent Dispatch Agencies) / 11.24

"Brooke Hauser" case / 11.24 - 11.26

Let me talk to the patient / 11.24, 11.28

"Boff" case (talk to patient & failure to send) / 11.27 - 11.28

Attitude problems / 11.28 - 11.29

Preconceived notions and negative impressions / 11.29 - 11.30

Misinterpretation of the caller’s complaint / 11.30 - 11.31

Problems at shift change / 11.31

Insurance aspects of EMD / 11.31 - 11.32

Emergency Medical Vehicle Collisions (EMVCs) / 11.32 - 11.33

State EMD rules and regulations / 11.33 - 11.34

Dispatcher immunity / 11.33 - 11.35

National Academy immunity position / 11.35

Not call screening / 11.35

Eleven components of Quality Improvement / 12.2 - 12.9

"Real Tough Time Breathing" case / 12.8 - 12.9

Selection and Implementation of Protocol / 12.3

EMD Candidate selection & evaluation / 12.3 - 12.4

ASTM EMD selection criteria / 12.3

Initial EMD training / 12.4

EMD certification / 12.4

Medical Control and Medical Director involvement / 12.4 - 12.5

First Law of Medical Control at Dispatch / 12.5

ASTM on Medical Control & Direction / 12.5

Continuing Dispatch EducationCDE / 12.5 - 12.6

EMD recertification / 12.6

Case reviewquality assurance / 12.7

Measuring compliance to protocol / 12.7 - 12.9

Academy case review volume standards / 12.7

Compliance improves determinant coding correctness / 12.9 - 12.10

Compliance improves Caller emotion / 12.10 - 12.11

Medical Dispatch Review Committee — MDRC / 12.11

MPDS Steering Committee / 12.11

Data Collection, Analysis, and Feedback / 12.11 - 12.12

Quality Management improves Compliance / 12.12

Suspension, Discipline, Decertification, Termination / 12.12

How EMD works best / 12.12

When to go on-line / 12.15

Feedback process / 12.15 - 12.18

Risk management / 12.16 - 12.18

Goals of Quality Management / 12.18 - 12.19

First Rule of Quality Management / 12.18

Corollary of First Rule of Quality Management / 12.19

History of EMD / 13.2 - 13.4

How I discovered protocols — Clawson / 13.3

Criteria Based Dispatch — Guidelines / 13.2, 13.4

Selection of an EMD Program / 13.4 - 13.12

Protocols vs. Guidelines / 13.4 - 13.12

Unstructured Discretionary Interrogation case / 13.7 - 13.8

Does Field work equal Phone work? / 13.8 - 13.9

CBD (Guidelines) vs. MPDS (Protocol): Sheffield Study / 13.9

Evolutionary Dead End — Protocol without Process / 13.9 - 13.12

How to compare protocols / 13.10 - 13.12

Evolution of Organized Standards for EMD / 13.12

DNA of Dispatch — Origins of the College of Fellows / 13.12 - 13.13

Unified Protocol Model / 13.13 - 13.18

National Academy organization chart / 13.18

National Academy growth & membership / A.2

National Academy Code of Ethics / A.2

National Academy Twenty (20) Points of Accreditation / A.3

Remediation Actions Policy — SLCFD / A.4

Proposal for Change form / A.5

Determinants per Protocol Chief Complaint / A.6

Key Questions per Protocol Chief Complaint / A.6

Legal Documentation — James O. Page letter to Aurora, CO / A.7 - A.9

California Liability Limitation Statutes / A.9 - A.10

Salt Lake City EMS Abuse Ordinance / A.11

State of Utah EMS Act (Statute) / A.11

Denial of 911 Liability Insurance letter / A.12

COLD response on BRAVO calls — SLCFD / A.13

Emergency Numbers from around the world / A.14

Acute Myocardial Infarction Data (heart attacks frequency) / A.14 - A.15

Cleveland EMS Year 1995 Dispatch Code data / A.16 - A.27

Derbyshire Ambulance Trust 1995 Dispatch Code data / A.28 - A.38

9-1-1 Transfers to Utah Poison Control Center, 1994 / A.39 - A.41

EMD Position Paper: National Institutes of Health / A.42 - A.57

EMD Position Paper: Emergency Medical Dispatch for Children / A.58 - A.61

Medical Dispatch Feedback Report — Operations / A.65 - A.66

Medical Dispatch Case Review Evaluation Template / A.63 - A.64

References of Works Cited / A.67 - A.72

Glossary of terms / A.73 - A.83

Index / A.84 - A.93